Llewellyn Worldwide, Ltd.
View your shopping cart Shopping Cart | My Account | Help | Become a Fan on Facebook Become a Fan | Follow Us on Twitter Follow Us | Watch Us on YouTube Watch Us | Subscribe to our RSS Feeds Subscribe
Browse ProductsAuthorsArticlesBlogsEncyclopediaNewslettersAffiliate ProgramContact UsBooksellers
Advanced Search
ENCYCLOPEDIA
Glossary
What's New
Most Popular
List of Articles

Email Exclusives
Sign up to receive special offers and promotions from Llewellyn.

Get the Latest Issue of New Worlds

March / April 2014 Issue

New Worlds Catalog

Get the FREE app for your tablet and mobile device. Now available in the iTunes Store and the Google Play Store

Also available as a PDF File.

Click for more information about New Worlds or to receive issues via mail.


The Llewellyn Encyclopedia
Print this Term Print this Article

Gerald Brousseau Gardner

This article was written by John Michael Greer on April 01, 2005
posted under Gardner, Gerald

English civil servant, author, occultist, and Witch, 1884-1964. Easily the most important figure in the creation of modern Wicca, Gerald Gardner spent most of his life as an English colonial bureaucrat. Born to a wealthy family in England, near Liverpool, he suffered from severe asthma as a child and spent winters in southern Europe. Later, when his nurse married an English colonist from Ceylon and moved there, Gardner accompanied her and worked on a tea plantation, then took up positions with British colonial administration in Borneo and Malaysia. Successful investments in the rubber industry made him a wealthy man, and enabled him to dabble in archeology and pursue his interest in native weapons. His first book, The Kris and Other Malay Weapons, was published in Singapore in 1939.

In 1936 he retired from government service and with his wife Donna, whom he married in 1927, he returned to England and settled in the New Forest area. He soon made contact with a group called the Rosicrucian Order of the Crotona Fellowship, a quasi-Theosopical organization based in the town of Christchurch…Gardner also joined the Folklore Society and became a close friend with one of its most controversial members, the former Egyptologist Margaret Murray, who had proposed in her 1921 book The Witch Cult in Western Europe that medieval Witchcraft was a survival of an ancient Pagan tradition.

According to Gardner, and to Gardnerian Witches since his time, the Crotona Fellowship had an inner circle consisting of people who claimed to practice this same original Witch-cult, a Pagan religion passed down in secret through the centuries. Dorothy Clutterbuck, the High Priestess of the coven, is said to have initiated Gardner in 1939…

In 1946, Gardner was introduced to Aleister Crowley, and apparently joined one of Crowley’s magical orders, the Ordo Templi Orientis (OTO). Gardner’s involvement was somewhat limited by the fact that, by the 1940s, the OTO itself was completely inactive in England, and the only initiation Crowley offered at the time consisted of being given copies of the rituals and other papers to read. Shortly after Crowley’s death, Gardner tried to revive the OTO with himself as head, but Crowley’s reputation was bad enough that Gardner was unable to attract any interest…

In 1949, Gardner published his first work on occult subjects, a novel entitled High Magic’s Aid, which was issued under the pseudonym Scire (Gardner’s magical motto). He gave his rank as "4°=7¬ OTO" on the title page…The novel includes detailed descriptions of initiation rituals into a medieval Witch-cult; according to Doreen Valiente, these were nearly identical to the ones used when she was initiated into Gardner’s coven in 1953.

In 1951, as a result of pressure brought by Spiritualist churches, England’s laws against Witchcraft were finally repealed. That same year, Gardner formed his own coven and moved to Castletown, on the Isle of Man, where he took up a position as resident Witch at the museum of Magic and Witchcraft. A few years later Gardner bought the museum from its original owner, Cecil Williamson.

The year 1954 saw the publication of Gardner’s first nonfiction work on Witchcraft, Witchcraft Today. It presented Wicca (or, as Gardner spelled it at that time, Wica) as a healthy, life-affirming Pagan religious tradition, and attracted widespread attention from the media and the public. He followed it with his last book, The Meaning of Witchcraft, in 1959. All through the last decade of his life, he made frequent media appearances to promote Witchcraft, initiated dozens of people into the Craft, and presided over the first Wiccan coven whose existence can definitely be proved. After a few years of failing health, he died in 1963 while returning by ship from a vacation in Lebanon.

When we are told we are being taken to a haunted location, long before we reach our destination, our mind will have already created its own ghosts and demons. In fact, the mind is the common denominator where any respectable paranormal investigator is concerned; and whether you are a sceptic or believer, you can never be certain exactly what... read this article
7 Ways to Welcome Spring with Crystals and Gems
The Witch's Broom: Magic for Everyone
Astrology: The Energy of Color
How to Get Rid of a Ghost: 3 Easy Ways
A Healing Spell for Your Cat

Most recent posts:
The Angel of the River Thames
Readers, please enjoy this guest blog post by Billy Roberts, author of The Holistic Way and the new Ghostly Tales. Today the subject of angels is...

Marseille Cat Tarot
The Marseille Tarot is very popular in Europe and is now gaining popularity in the US. Some people think that Marseille style decks are harder to...

The Four Elements
Readers, please enjoy this guest blog post by Donald Tyson, author of a vast number of books, including The Serpent of Wisdom, The Demonology of King...




Llewellyn's 2014 Moon Sign Book Llewellyn's 2014 Moon Sign Book
Conscious Living by the Cycles of the Moon

By: Llewellyn
Price: $10.99 US,  $12.50 CAN
$2.75 US,  $3.13 CAN On Sale!
Llewellyn's 2014 Herbal Almanac Llewellyn's 2014 Herbal Almanac
Herbs for Growing & Gathering, Cooking & Crafts, Health & Beauty, History, Myth & Lore

By: Llewellyn
Price: $10.99 US,  $12.50 CAN
$2.75 US,  $3.13 CAN On Sale!
Llewellyn's 2014 Magical Almanac Llewellyn's 2014 Magical Almanac
Practical Magic for Everyday Living

By: Llewellyn
Price: $10.99 US,  $12.50 CAN
$2.75 US,  $3.13 CAN On Sale!
Llewellyn's 2014 Witches' Datebook Llewellyn's 2014 Witches' Datebook
By: Llewellyn
Price: $10.99 US,  $12.50 CAN
$2.75 US,  $3.13 CAN On Sale!
Llewellyn's 2014 Astrological Calendar Llewellyn's 2014 Astrological Calendar
Horoscopes for You Plus an Introduction to Astrology

By: Llewellyn
Price: $13.99 US,  $15.99 CAN
$3.50 US,  $4.00 CAN On Sale!