2. Also called Analytic Psychology, it's the system developed by C. G. Jung. After studying with Freud he advanced a more spiritual approach to psychotherapy evolving out of his studies of occult traditions and practices including (in particular) alchemy, astrology, dream interpretation, the I Ching, the Tarot, and spiritualism.
For Jung, the whole range of occult and religious phenomena have evolved out of the relationship between the individual consciousness and the collective unconscious. While the personal unconscious or subconscious mind is the "lower" part of the individual consciousness, it is through it that we also experience and have experience of the elements of the collective unconscious—most importantly the role of the archetypes.
The archetypes are "collectives" of images and energies relating to
- Roll specific functional, formative and universal experiences such as Mother, Father, Lover, Judge, Hero, etc.
- Those that are more personal with karmic content including the Shadow (repressions), the Anima (expressions of the Feminine in men), the Animus (expressions of the Masculine in women) and
- The Self (the evolving Whole Person that overshadows the Personality).