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The Llewellyn Encyclopedia

Term: philosophical argument

DEFINITIONS

Philosophical Argument:

A means to determine the answer of a question. It uses a series of statements, known as premises, that are interrelated thought an accepted set of rules, known as formal logic, leading to a determination as to the validity or falseness of a question, known as the conclusion.

 

Example

Question: Is Socrates mortal?

Premises: All men are mortal.

            Socrates is a man.

Conversion to symbols: Men=X

                               Mortal=Y

                               Socrates=Z

                               “is” is represented by the =

So the Question can be expressed: Does Z=Y?

The premises can be expressed: X=Y and X=Z

The logical rule of syllogism allows us to infer that Z=Y

Conversion back to words: Socrates is mortal

 

Note that if any of the premises are false, the conclusion is logically false. However, even if the conclusions is logically false, it’s possible for the conclusion to be objectively true. For example, assume one of the premises in the above argument is that “Rover is a man.” However, Rover is actually a dog. Therefore, the premise is false and the conclusion is also logically flase. However, the conclusion is objectively true. Finally, even if the premises are accurate, if the numerous logical rules are applied incorrectly, the result can also be false.

 

It should be noted that a philosophical or logical argument is not the same as two or more people arguing over an idea or belief as such arguments rarely rely on the rules of formal logic and are often tinged or even overpowered with animosity.

Donad Michael Kraig


ARTICLES

Signs of the Zodiac
The signs of the zodiac are the most widely known part of the astrological system. As mentioned earlier, almost everyone knows your Sun sign. The daily horoscopes in the newspaper are based on the position of the Sun in the zodiac. The zodiac is ...
Relevance:  40 % 40%


Transits and Progressions
Just as your birth chart shows where the planets were when you were born, at any moment another chart can be created. The planets in a chart for a particular moment are called transits. As the planets move through the zodiac, they interact with ...
Relevance:  15 % 15%


Celtic Religion
Druidism can be used synonymously with the phrases Celtic religion and Celtic magic. In order to enter into this magico-religious system, a familiarity with mythology is necessary. Celtic mythology is best represented in the Irish Book of Invasions ...
Relevance:  10 % 10%


The System of Chakras
A chakra is a spinning vortex of energy created within ourselves by the interpenetration of consciousness and the physical body. Through this combination, chakras become centers of activity for the reception, assimilation and transmission of life ...
Relevance:  7 % 7%


Astrological Houses
Your astrological chart is divided into twelve sections called houses. They are numbered from the left side counterclockwise around the chart. The chart represents the planets against a background of the signs of the zodiac, and these signs rise in ...
Relevance:  5 % 5%


What is Magic?
Magic is an art. In common with other arts, it draws its power from a deep well in the center of the human soul. Within this well are the waters of the unconscious, and below the surface dwell all possibilities and potentials, awaiting their turn to ...
Relevance:  3 % 3%


Ancient Healing Techniques Rediscovered
The Simontons had rediscovered one of the world’s oldest systems of healing. It goes back at least as far as the ancient Egyptians. Hermes, the great Egyptian healer, believed physical diseases were caused by the mind along with the spirit and could ...
Relevance:  3 % 3%


Review of Dame Fortune\'s Wheel Tarot
Summary: Dame Fortune’s Wheel Tarot is an elegant marriage of historical research and practicality. It celebrates the Tarot’s introduction as a divinatory tool, stripping it of modern esoteric burdens. The result is a deck that is eminently easy to ...
Relevance:  2 % 2%


What Is an Herb?
Even botanists haven’t been able to agree on this. In magic, we avoid these arcane arguments by simply stating that an herb is any plant or any part of a plant that’s used in magic. An "herb" can be a cactus, a flower, a seaweed, a moss, a mushroom, ...
Relevance:  2 % 2%


Review of 2012: Tarot of Ascension
Summary: This deck is created to examine the next step in human spiritual evolution that many expect to occur in 2012. The card meanings are extremely positive but balanced by a dark color palette, challenging symbolic compositions, and a ...
Relevance:  2 % 2%



Spring arrives, and it's that time for awakening to fresh ideas, new beginnings, and innovative growth. Inspiration for new ideas often comes through creative action. Once the ball starts rolling, it's easier to energize your ideas and plans for this next cycle. The elementals of the gemstone kingdom can help you through their vibration and color... read this article
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