Llewellyn Worldwide, Ltd.
View your shopping cart Shopping Cart | My Account | Help | Become a Fan on Facebook Become a Fan | Follow Us on Twitter Follow Us | Watch Us on YouTube Watch Us | Subscribe to our RSS Feeds Subscribe
Browse ProductsAuthorsArticlesBlogsEncyclopediaNewslettersAffiliate ProgramContact UsBooksellers
ENCYCLOPEDIA
Glossary
What's New
Most Popular
List of Articles

Email Exclusives
Sign up to receive special offers and promotions from Llewellyn.

Get the Latest Issue of New Worlds

January/February 2017 Issue

New Worlds Catalog

Get the FREE app for your tablet and mobile device. Now available in the iTunes Store and the Google Play Store

Also available as a PDF File.

Click for more information about New Worlds or to receive issues via mail.


The Llewellyn Encyclopedia

Term: philosophical argument

DEFINITIONS

Philosophical Argument:

A means to determine the answer of a question. It uses a series of statements, known as premises, that are interrelated thought an accepted set of rules, known as formal logic, leading to a determination as to the validity or falseness of a question, known as the conclusion.

 

Example

Question: Is Socrates mortal?

Premises: All men are mortal.

            Socrates is a man.

Conversion to symbols: Men=X

                               Mortal=Y

                               Socrates=Z

                               “is” is represented by the =

So the Question can be expressed: Does Z=Y?

The premises can be expressed: X=Y and X=Z

The logical rule of syllogism allows us to infer that Z=Y

Conversion back to words: Socrates is mortal

 

Note that if any of the premises are false, the conclusion is logically false. However, even if the conclusions is logically false, it’s possible for the conclusion to be objectively true. For example, assume one of the premises in the above argument is that “Rover is a man.” However, Rover is actually a dog. Therefore, the premise is false and the conclusion is also logically flase. However, the conclusion is objectively true. Finally, even if the premises are accurate, if the numerous logical rules are applied incorrectly, the result can also be false.

 

It should be noted that a philosophical or logical argument is not the same as two or more people arguing over an idea or belief as such arguments rarely rely on the rules of formal logic and are often tinged or even overpowered with animosity.

Donad Michael Kraig


ARTICLES

Signs of the Zodiac
The signs of the zodiac are the most widely known part of the astrological system. As mentioned earlier, almost everyone knows your Sun sign. The daily horoscopes in the newspaper are based on the position of the Sun in the zodiac. The zodiac is ...
Relevance:  40 % 40%


Transits and Progressions
Just as your birth chart shows where the planets were when you were born, at any moment another chart can be created. The planets in a chart for a particular moment are called transits. As the planets move through the zodiac, they interact with ...
Relevance:  15 % 15%


Celtic Religion
Druidism can be used synonymously with the phrases Celtic religion and Celtic magic. In order to enter into this magico-religious system, a familiarity with mythology is necessary. Celtic mythology is best represented in the Irish Book of Invasions ...
Relevance:  10 % 10%


The System of Chakras
A chakra is a spinning vortex of energy created within ourselves by the interpenetration of consciousness and the physical body. Through this combination, chakras become centers of activity for the reception, assimilation and transmission of life ...
Relevance:  7 % 7%


Astrological Houses
Your astrological chart is divided into twelve sections called houses. They are numbered from the left side counterclockwise around the chart. The chart represents the planets against a background of the signs of the zodiac, and these signs rise in ...
Relevance:  5 % 5%


What is Magic?
Magic is an art. In common with other arts, it draws its power from a deep well in the center of the human soul. Within this well are the waters of the unconscious, and below the surface dwell all possibilities and potentials, awaiting their turn to ...
Relevance:  3 % 3%


Ancient Healing Techniques Rediscovered
The Simontons had rediscovered one of the world’s oldest systems of healing. It goes back at least as far as the ancient Egyptians. Hermes, the great Egyptian healer, believed physical diseases were caused by the mind along with the spirit and could ...
Relevance:  3 % 3%


Review of Dame Fortune\'s Wheel Tarot
Summary: Dame Fortune’s Wheel Tarot is an elegant marriage of historical research and practicality. It celebrates the Tarot’s introduction as a divinatory tool, stripping it of modern esoteric burdens. The result is a deck that is eminently easy to ...
Relevance:  2 % 2%


What Is an Herb?
Even botanists haven’t been able to agree on this. In magic, we avoid these arcane arguments by simply stating that an herb is any plant or any part of a plant that’s used in magic. An "herb" can be a cactus, a flower, a seaweed, a moss, a mushroom, ...
Relevance:  2 % 2%


Review of 2012: Tarot of Ascension
Summary: This deck is created to examine the next step in human spiritual evolution that many expect to occur in 2012. The card meanings are extremely positive but balanced by a dark color palette, challenging symbolic compositions, and a ...
Relevance:  2 % 2%



Name one religion or type of spiritual system that doesn't incorporate music into its worship services in some way. It's not easy, is it? From singing hymns to beating drums, and from the rhythmic chanting of prayers to the soaring organ fugues of Bach, music is a spiritual tool that connects mind and body to the divine spirit. While country... read this article
How Money Flows at the Sacral and Heart Chakras
The Rose Phoenix
10 Things You Might Not Know About The Exorcist
Magical Tree Oracle: What Do the Trees Have to Tell You?
A Checklist to Discern Your Empathic Abilities

Most recent posts:
The Art of Shadowscapes
Art of Shadowscapes Tarot So many people absolutely love Stephanie Pui-Mun Law’s gorgeous Shadowscapes Tarot. One of the only complaints we...

Chakra Insight Oracle is One of Ezvid Wiki's 2017 Best Chakra Cards!
The Chakra Insight Oracle is one of Ezvid Wiki's Top Chakra Cards of 2017, coming in at #2! Founded in 2011, Ezvid Wiki was the world's first...

Making the Tarot Your Own
Instead of telling you the one way to read tarot, Your Tarot Your Way embraces the reality that tarot has evolved continuously since its creation...




Dreamworking Dreamworking
How to Listen to the Inner Guidance of Your Dreams

By: Christopher Sowton
Price: $19.99 US,  $22.95 CAN
The Hearth Witch's Compendium The Hearth Witch's Compendium
Magical and Natural Living for Every Day

By: Anna Franklin
Price: $27.99 US,  $32.50 CAN
Discover Your Master Chakra Discover Your Master Chakra
Reveal the Source of Your Spiritual Gifts

By: Stephanie S. Larsen
Price: $17.99 US,  $20.95 CAN
Easy Tarot Easy Tarot
Learn to Read the Cards Once and For All!

By: Josephine Ellershaw, Ciro Marchetti
Price: $19.95 US,  $21.95 CAN
Cunningham's Encyclopedia of Magical Herbs Cunningham's Encyclopedia of Magical Herbs
By: Scott Cunningham
Price: $17.99 US,  $20.95 CAN